by M.E. Kowalska, A.K. Shukla, K. Arteaga, M. Crasta, C. Dixon, F. Famose, S. Hartnack and S.A. Pot


Infectious keratitis is a common ophthalmic condition in canine and feline patients. Risk factors for treatment failure following photoactivated chromophore for keratitis – corneal cross-linking (PACK-CXL) in canine and feline patients are not well defined.


  • Overall success PACK-CXL treatment: 90% (95%CI: 88-92%).
  • PACK-CXL treatment acceleration is the only investigated variable directly associated with treatment outcome (ABN).
  • Dogs receiving eye drop therapy + PACK-CXL epithelialize faster than dogs receiving PACK-CXL only (Kaplan-Meier
    survival analysis: figure 2).
  • A history of pre-existing ocular disease or previous ocular surgery, hypopyon or a larger ulcer size at presentation delay epithelization (Cox proportional hazard regression analysis).


  • PACK-CXL is a highly successful adjunctive treatment for the management of infectious keratitis in dogs and cats.
  • Canine patients may benefit from accelerated PACK-CXL; the reasons for this apparent positive impact on treatment outcome remain unclear.



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